3 Maymun Bibliography

Name of Monument:

Old Gate of Bisagra


Calle Alfonso VI, s/n, Toledo, Spain

Date of Monument:

Hegira 4th century / AD 10th century

Period / Dynasty

Umayyad of al-Andalus, Caliphate period


The Old Gate of Bisagra, Bibxacra or bab al-Saqra is the only gate from the Muslim age to have survived in reasonably good condition, possibly because it was closed up when the remodelling of the city was ordered. Documentation confirms its existence from the beginning of the AH 5th / AD 11th century. The first reference dates to the year AH 400 / AD 1009–10, and it is subsequently mentioned in a variety of documents that tell of transactions and the payment of tolls. People had to pass through the gate to get to the cemetery located outside the walls, and the passage of goods made it one of the most fruitful toll points for the city.
The gateway is part of a northerly extension to the walled enclosure. Its outer façade, in a projection of the enclosure, sets the entrance back. It is made up of two towers, reconstructed at the top, which flank a section of wall that contains a horseshoe arch with a span of 2.5 m between jambs, the same as the diameter of the arch, and a height of 5.40 m. The arch is horseshoe-shaped prolonged three-fifths of the radius, with the arrangement of the voussoirs converging on the lines of the imposts. It is toothed to the level of the haunches, where we find the usual wedges that launch the unclad radial arch, and framed by an alfiz panel, the top of which reaches a height of 6.58 m. The voussoirs are made up of salvaged pieces, which is evident from the uneven size of the masonry and a limestone near the keystone that still bears a Visigothic-period plant motif. The keystone is a reused white stone decorated with secant circles of similar style. At the level of the springers there is a huge lintel acting as a brace from which there would have been a brick bond up to the level of the intrados. The upper part, with small corner-columns, and the organisation of the inside of the gateway are Mudéjar work, possibly from the AH 7th / AD 13th century.
During the cleaning and restoration work carried out in 1907, a postern or door was discovered in the left turret, which was walled up but whose existence is documented in photographs from the time. Its original purpose is unknown, as it considerably reduced the defensive effectiveness of the arch. The head of the cleaning work, Ricardo Arredondo, believes that the door would have been one of the traps intended to make it difficult for besiegers to take control of the entrance and to penetrate the town. He constructed the lateral façade and the back horseshoe arch beside the town, copying the lines of the original gateway. The work has restored a gateway of great structural and historical importance that was threatened with ruin.

View Short Description

So called because it led to the fertile district of Shaqra or Sagra, this gateway was one of the most important in the city of Toledo as it had to be passed to reach the cemetery outside the city walls and it generated substantial toll revenues from goods traffic.
The gateway is a northward extension of the enclosure wall and consists of two towers, remodelled at the top, either side of a horseshoe arch.

How Monument was dated:

There are documentary references from 400 / 1009–10 where it is mentioned in relation to the death and burial of a significant Arab personality, Ibn Maymun.

Selected bibliography:

Amador de los Ríos, R., Puerta Antigua de Bisagra en Toledo, Madrid, 1877.
Amador de los Ríos, R., Monumentos Arquitectónicos de España: Toledo, Madrid, 1905, pp.439–42.
Delgado Valero, C., Toledo Islámico: Ciudad, Arte e Historia, Toledo, 1987, pp.172–9.
Gómez Moreno, M., El Arte árabe Español Hasta los Almohades: Arte Mozárabe,Ars Hispaniae, Vol. III, Madrid, 1951, pp.198–200.
Martín, E., “Arredondo en la Restauración de la Antigua Puerta de Visagra”, Toledo: Revista de Arte, 63, 15 December 1916, p.2.

Citation of this web page:

Ángela Franco "Old Gate of Bisagra" in Discover Islamic Art, Museum With No Frontiers, 2018. 2018. http://www.discoverislamicart.org/database_item.php?id=monument;ISL;es;Mon01;12;en

Prepared by: Ángela FrancoÁngela Franco

Ángela Franco es Jefa del Departamento de Antigüedades Medievales en el Museo Arqueológico Nacional.
Obtuvo el Grado de Doctor por la Universidad Complutense de Madrid con la tesis Escultura gótica en León y provincia, premiada y publicada parcialmente (Madrid, 1976; reed. León, 1998); y la Diplomatura en Paleografía y Archivística por la Scuola Vaticana di Paleografia, Diplomatica e Archivistica, con la tesis L'Archivio paleografico italiano: indici dei manoscritti, publicada en castellano (Madrid, 1985). Becas de investigación: beca posdoctoral del Ministerio de Asuntos Exteriores, Academia Española de Bellas Artes de Roma (1974-75); beca posdoctoral del Ministerio de Educación y Ciencia, Academia Española de Bellas Artes de Roma (1975-77); beca de la Fundación Juan March de Madrid (1978).
Tiene en su haber 202 publicaciones, fundamentalmente sobre arte medieval cristiano, en especial la iconografía: Crucifijo gótico doloroso, Doble Credo, Danzas de la Muerte, temática bíblica en relación con la liturgia (el Génesis y el Éxodo en relación con la vigilia Pascual) o con el teatro (Secundum legem debet mori, sobre el “pozo de Moisés” de la cartuja de Dijon). Es autora de cuatro catálogos monográficos del Museo Arqueológico Nacional, entre ellos el de Dedales islámicos (Madrid, 1993), y de publicaciones sobre escultura gótica y pintura en la catedral de León y sobre escultura gótica en Ávila, así como de numerosas fichas para catálogos de exposiciones.
Ha participado en innumerables congresos nacionales e internacionales, presentando ponencias y mesas redondas, y ha dirigido cursos y ciclos de conferencias. Es Secretaria de Publicaciones en el Museo Arqueológico Nacional desde 1989.
Copyedited by: Rosalía AllerRosalía Aller

Rosalía Aller Maisonnave, licenciada en Letras (Universidad Católica del Uruguay), y en Filología Hispánica y magíster en Gestión Cultural de Música, Teatro y Danza (Universidad Complutense de Madrid), ha obtenido becas de la Agencia Española de Cooperación Internacional y la Universidad Nacional de Educación a Distancia de Madrid, así como el Diplôme de Langue Française (Alliance Française), el Certificate of Proficiency in English (University of Cambridge) y el Certificado Superior en inglés y francés (Escuela Oficial de Idiomas de Madrid). Profesora de Estética de la Poesía y Teoría Literaria en la Universidad Católica del Uruguay, actualmente es docente de Lengua Castellana y Literatura en institutos de Enseñanza Secundaria y formación del profesorado en Madrid. Desde 1983, ha realizado traducción y edición de textos en Automated Training Systems, Applied Learning International, Videobanco Formación y El Derecho Editores. Integra el equipo de Museo Sin Fronteras desde 1999 y ha colaborado en la revisión de los catálogos de “El Arte Islámico en el Mediterráneo”. Así mismo, ha realizado publicaciones sobre temas literarios y didácticos, ha dictado conferencias y ha participado en recitales poéticos.
Translation by: Laurence Nunny
Translation copyedited by: Monica Allen

MWNF Working Number: SP 15

- Selected Bibliography on Al-Ghazali -

Works by Al-Ghazali:

The Arabic articles al-, ad-, etc. are disregarded for the purpose of this alphabetical order.

  1.  Ayyuha-l-Walad [Letter to a Disciple]. Cairo, Maktabat al-Jundi, n.d. (Printed as part of a series.) (English translation and introduction by George H. Scherer, O Disciple, Beirut, Catholic Press, 1951. (UNESCO Collection of Great Works: Arabic series.)

  2. Bid_yat al-Hidaya [The Beginning of Divine Guidance]. Cairo, Al-Halabi, 1912.

  3. ad-Durra al-Fakhira fi Kashf ‘Ulum al-Akhira [The Precious Pearl that Unveils the Sciences of the Hereafter]. Amsterdam, Oriental Press, 1974.

  4. Fada’ih al-Batiniya wa-Fada’il al-Mustazhiriya [The Infamies of the Esotericists and the Virtues of the Exotericists]. Cairo, Ad-Dar al-Qaumiya, 1964. (Also called Al-Mustazhiri [The Exotericist].)

  5. Faisal at-Tafriqa bain al-Islam wa-z-Zandaqa [The Point of Separation between Islam and Apostasy]. Cairo, Dar Ihya’ al-Kutub al-‘Arabiya, 1961.

  6. Fatihat al-‘Ulum [The Beginning of Sciences]. Cairo, Al-Matba‘a al-Husainiya, 1904 (A.H. 1322).

  7. Ihya’ ‘Ulum ad-Din [The Revival of the Religious Sciences]. Cairo, Al-Matba‘a al-Azhariya, 1898 (A.H. 1316). 4 vols.

  8. Iljam al-‘Awamm ‘an ‘Ilm al-Kalam [Restraining the Masses from Theological Disputation]. Cairo, Al-Matba‘a al-Muniriya, 1932 (A.H. 1351).

  9. Al-Iqtisad fi-l-I‘tiqad [The Golden Mean in Belief]. Cairo, Maktabat as-Sa‘ada, 1909.

  10. Jawahir al-Qur’an [The Jewels of the Koran]. Damascus, Al-Markaz al-‘Arabi li-l-Kitab, n.d.

  11. al-Kashf wa-t-Tabyin fi Ghurur al-Khalq Ajma‘in [The Investigation and Demonstration of the Delusion of All Creatures]. Cairo, Al-Halabi, 1960.

  12. Kimiya-yi Sa‘adat [The Alchemy of Happiness]. Bombay, 1903. (In Persian) (Translated into Arabic as Kitab al-Hikma fi Makhluqat Allah [The Book of Wisdom in God’s Creations]. Cairo, Al-Qabbani, 1904.)

  13. Kitab al-Arba‘in fi Usul ad-Din [The Forty Fundamentals of the Faith]. Cairo, Al-Matba‘a al-‘Arabiya, 1926 (A.H. 1344).

  14. al-Ma‘arif al-‘Aqliya [Rational Knowledge]. Damascus, Dar al-Fikr al-‘Arabi, 1963.

  15. Ma‘arij al-Quds fi Madarij Ma‘rifat an-Nafs [The Ladder of Holiness Concerning the Degrees of Knowledge of Self]. Cairo, Matba‘at as-Sa‘ada, 1927.

  16. al-Madnun bihi ‘alà ghair Ahlihi [That Which Is to Be Withheld from Those Unworthy of It]. Cairo, Maktabat al-Jundi, n.d.

  17. Maqasid al-Falasifa [The Aims of the Philosophers]. Cairo, Matba‘at as-Sa‘ada, 1913.

  18. al-Maqsid al-Asnà fi Sharh Ma‘anì Asma’ Allah al-Husnà [The Sublime Ideal in the Exegesis of the Most Beautiful Names of God]. Beirut, Dar al-Mashriq, 1982.

  19. Mi‘yar al-‘Ilm [The Yardstick of Knowledge]. Cairo, Matba‘at Kurdistan, 1911 (A.H. 1329).

  20. Minhaj al-‘Abidin [The Path of the Worshippers]. Cairo, Maktabat al-Jundi, n.d.

  21. Mishkat al-Anwar [The Niche of Lights]. Cairo, Ad-Dar al-Qaumiya, 1964.

  22. Mizan al-‘Amal [The Criterion of Action]. Cairo, Maktabat Sabi, 1963.

  23. al-Munqidh min ad-Dalal [Deliverance from Error]. Cairo, Al-Maktaba al-Anglo-Misriya, 1962.

  24. al-Mustasfà fi ‘Ilm al-Usul [The Pure Teaching on the Science of Fundamentals]. Cairo, Al-Maktaba at-Tijariya, 1937. 2 vols.

  25. al-Mustazhiri [The Exotericist]. See Fada’ih al-Batiniya wa-Fada’il al-Mustazhiriya.

  26. al-Qistas al-Mustaqim [The Even Scales]. Damascus, Dar al-Hikma, 1986.

  27. ar-Risala al-Laduniya [The Message of Mystic Intuition]. Cairo, Maktabat al-Jundi, no date.

  28. ar-Risala al-Qudsiya fi Qawa‘id al-‘Aqa’id [The Jerusalem Epistle concerning the Foundations of the Articles of Faith]. (Forms part of Ihya’ ‘Ulum ad-Din.)

  29. Tahafut al-Falasifa [The Incoherence of the Philosophers]. Cairo, Dar al-Ma‘arif, 1958.

  30. at-Tibr al-Masbuk fi Nasihat al-Muluk [Ingots of Gold for the Advice of Kings]. Beirut, Al-Mu’assasa al-Jami‘iya, 1987.

On the editing of al-Ghazali’s works and the authenticity of attribution to him, see:

  • Badawi, ‘A. Mu’allafat al-Ghazali [The Works of al-Ghazali]. Cairo, Al-Majlis al-A‘là li-Ri‘ayat al-Funun wa-l-Adab, 1961.

 Works by other classical Islamic or Arabic authors

  1. al-‘Abdari, Ibn al-Hajj. Madkhal ash-Shar‘ ash-Sharif [Introduction to the Divine Revelation]. Cairo, Al-Matba‘a al-Ashrafiya, AD 1902 (AH 1320). 3 vols.

  2. al-Haitami, Ibn Hajar. Tahrir al-Maqal fi Adab wa-Ahkam wa-Fawa’id Yahtaju ilaiha Mu’addibu-l-Atfal [The Liberation of Discourse on the Rules of Conduct and Moral Advantages Required by the Educators of

  3. Children]. Dar al-Kutub al-Misriya, manuscript No. 3182/Lit.

  4. Ibn Jama‘a, Badr ud-Din. Tadhkirat as-Sami‘ wa-l-Mutakallim fi Adab al-‘alim wa-l-Muta‘allim [Memorandum for the Pupil and Master on the Rules of Conduct of the Scholar and Student]. Dar al-Kutub al-Misriya, manuscript No. 1831/Lit.

  5. Ibn Miskawayh. Tahdib al-Akhlaq wa-Tathir al-A‘raq [The Refinement of Character and the Purification of Races]. Cairo, Al-Matba‘a al-Adabiya, 1899 (A.H. 1317).

  6. Ibn Rushd (Averroes). Tahafut at-Tahafut [The Incoherence of the Incoherence]. Cairo, Al-Matba‘a al-Islamiya, 1884 (A.H. 1302).

  7. ——. Fasl al-Maqal wa-Taqrib ma bain ash-Shari‘a wa-l-Hikma min al-Ittisal [An Authoritative Treatise and Exposition of the Convergence which Exists between Religious Law and Philosophy]. Cairo, Al-Matba‘a al- Mahmudiya, n.d.

  8. Ikhwan as-Safa’ [The Brethren of Purity]. Rasa’il [Epistles]. Cairo, 1928 (A.H. 1347).

  9. al-Ma‘arri, Abu-l-‘Ala’. Risalat al-Ghufran [The Epistle of Forgiveness]. Cairo, Dar al-Ma‘arif, 1977.

  10. Maimonides (In Arabic: Musà Ibn Maimun; in Hebrew: Moshe ben Maimon]. Dalalat al-Ha’irin [Guide for the Perplexed]. Cairo, Maktabat ath-Thaqafa ad-Diniya, n.d. (Originally composed in Arabic.)

  11. al-Qabisi. Ar-Risala al-Mufassala li-Ahwal al-Mu‘allimin wa-Ahkam al-Mu‘allimin wa-l-Muta‘allimin [Detailed Report on the Situation of Schoolteachers and the Regulations Governing Schoolteachers and Pupils]. Cairo, Al-Halabi, 1955.

  12. ash-Shaizari, ‘Abdurrahman. Nihayat ar-Rutba fi Talab al-Hisba [Hierarchy of the Inspectorate]. Cairo, Matba‘at Lajnat at-Ta’lif, 1946. (Edited, with French translation, by Bernhauer, as ‘Les institutions de police chez les Arabes...’, Journal Asiatique, 1860-61.)

  13. at-Tusi, Nasiri ud-Din. Akhlaq-i Nasiri [Nasirean Ethics]. Bombay, 1850 (A.H. 1267). (In Persian.)

  14. ———. Adab al-Muta‘allimin [Rules of Conduct for Students].

  15. az-Zarnuji, Burhan ud-Din. Ta‘lim al-Muta‘allim ariq at-Ta‘allum [Teaching the Student the Method of Study]. Cairo, Maktabat abi, 1956.

 Works on al-Ghazali

In Arabic:

  1. Dunya, S. Al-Haqiqa fi Nazar al-Ghazali [The Truth in the Eyes of al-Ghazali]. Cairo, Al-Halabi, 1947.

  2. Mahmud, Z. (ed.). Abu Hamid al-Ghazali fi-dh-Dhikrà al-Mi’awiya at-Tasi‘a li-Miladihi [Abu Hamid al-Ghazali on the Ninth Centenary of his Birth]. Cairo, Al-Majlis al-A‘là li-Ri‘ayat al-Funun wa-l-Adab, 1962.

  3. Mubarak, Z. Al-Akhlaq ‘ind al-Ghazali [Al-Ghazali’s Ethics]. Cairo, Al-Maktaba at-Tijariya, n.d.

  4. al-‘Uthman, ‘A. Ad-Dirasat an-Nafsiya ‘ind al-Muslimin wa-l-Ghazali bi-Wajhin Khass [Spiritual Studies by Muslims and by al-Ghazali in Particular]. Cairo, Maktabat Wahba, 1963.

  5. _____. Sirat al-Ghazali wa-Aqwal al-Mutaqaddimin fihi [The Life of al-Ghazali and the Remarks of the Ancients concerning him]. Damascus, Dar al-Fikr, n.d.

 In English and French:

  1. Bello, I. E. The Medieval Islamic Controversy between Philosophy and Orthodoxy: Ijma‘ and Ta’wil in the Conflict between al-Ghazali and Ibn Rushd. Leiden, Brill, 1990.

  2. Ghazali: La raison et le miracle [Ghazali: the Reason and the Miracle]. Paris, Maisonneuve & Larose, 1987.

  3. (Collection «Islam d’hier et d’aujourd’hui», No. 30.) (Proceedings of a round-table held at UNESCO, Paris,

  4. 9-10 December 1985, on the 900th anniversary of the death of al-Ghazali. Articles in English, French and Arabic.)

  5. Myers, E. Arabic Thought and the Western World in the Golden Age of Islam. New York, Frederick Ungar, 1964.

  6. Othman, A. I. The Concept of Man in Islam in the Writings of Al Ghazali. Cairo, Dar al-Maaref, 1960.

  7. Smith, M. Al-Ghazali the Mystic. London, Luzac, 1944.

  8. Watt, M. Muslim Intellectual: A Study of Al Ghazali. Edinburgh, Edinburgh University Press, 1963.

  9. Zwemmer, S. M. A Moslem Seeker after God. New York, Fleming Revell, 1920.


Jump to Books in Arabic

Al-Ghazali Books in English Translation:                                                                   


 Personal author: Ghazzali, 1058-1111.

         Uniform title: [Kimiyae saadat. English]

                 Title: The alchemy of happiness / al-Ghazzali ; translated

                        from the Hindustani by Claud Field.

      Publication info: London : Published for the Sufi Trust by the Octagon

                        Press, c1980.

      Physical descrip: 122 p. ; 19 cm.

               Subject: Islamic ethics--Early works to 1800.

               Subject: Religious life--Islam.

          Added author: Field, Claud, 1863-1941.


       Personal author: Ghazzali, 1058-1111.

         Uniform title: [Kimiya-yi saadat. English. Selections]

                 Title: The alchemy of happiness / Abu Hamid Muhammad

                        al-Ghazzali; translated by Claud Field ; revised and

                        annotated by Elton L. Daniel.

      Publication info: Armonk, N.Y. : M.E. Sharpe, c1991.

      Physical descrip: xliii, 112 p. : ill. ; 24 cm.

                Series: Sources and studies in world history

               Subject: Islamic ethics--Early works to 1800.

          Added author: Field, Claud, 1863-1941.



       Personal author: Ghazzali, 1058-1111.

                 Title: al-Ghazalis Schrift wider die Gottheit Jesu, von

                        Franz-Elmar Wilms.

      Publication info: Leiden, E. J. Brill, 1966.

      Physical descrip: xxiii, 243 p. 25 cm.

               Subject: Jesus Christ--Islamic interpretations.

               Subject: Jesus Christ--Islamic interpretations--Bibliography.

          Added author: Wilms, Franz-Elmar, 1934-,



       Personal author: Ghazzali, 1058-1111.

                 Title: al-Ghazzali's Tahafut al-falasifah; incoherence of

                        the philosophers. Translated into English by Sabih

                        Ahmad Kamali.

      Publication info: Lahore, Pakistan Philosophical Congress, 1963.

      Physical descrip: viii, 267 p. 25 cm.

                Series: Pakistan Philosophical Congress publication no. 3

                Series: Publications (Pakistan Philosophical Congress) ; no.


     Dissertation note: Thesis (M. A.)--McGill University.

               Subject: Islam and philosophy.

          Added author: Kamali, Sabih Ahmad, 1927-,




       Personal author: Ghazzali, 1058-1111.

                 Title: The faith and practice of al-Ghazali, by W.

                        Montgomery Watt.

      Publication info: London, G. Allen and Unwin [1967]

      Physical descrip: 155 p. 19 cm.

                Series: Ethical and religious classics of East and West ; no.8

              Contents: Deliverance from error and attachment to the Lord God

                        of Might and Majesty. [al-Munkidh min al-dalal] --

                        The beginning of guidance. [Badayat al-hidayah]

          Added author: Watt, W. Montgomery (William Montgomery)



       Personal author: Ghazzali, 1058-1111.

                 Title: The foundations of the articles of faith, being a

                        translation with notes of the Kitab qawaid

                        al-aqa'id of al-Ghazzali's "Ihya' ulum al-din,"

                        by Nabih Amin Faris.

               Edition: [1st ed.]

      Publication info: Lahore, Sh. Muhammad Ashraf, 1963.

      Physical descrip: viii, 144 p. 22 cm.

               Subject: Islam--Doctrines--Early works to 1800.

               Subject: Faith (Islam)

          Added author: Faris, Nabih Amin, 1906-,



       Personal author: Ghazzali, 1058-1111.

         Uniform title: [Munqidh min al-dalal. English]

                 Title: Freedom and fulfillment : an annotated translation of

                        Al-Ghazalis al-Munqidh min al-dalal and other

                        relevant works of al-Ghazali / by Richard Joseph


      Publication info: Boston : Twayne Publishers, c1980.

      Physical descrip: lx, 420 p. : ill. ; 21 cm.

                Series: Library of classical Arabic literature ; v. 4

               Subject: Ghazzali, 1058-1111.

               Subject: Islam--Doctrines--Early works to 1800.

               Subject: Muslims--Islamic Empire--Biography.

          Added author: McCarthy, Richard Joseph.



       Personal author: Ghazzali, 1058-1111.

                 Title: Gazzali's Ihya Ulum-id-din : or, the revival of

                        religious learnings / [translated by] Alhaj Maulana

                        Fazlul Karim.

               Edition: 1st ed.

      Publication info: Dacca : F. K. Islam Mission, 1971-1972.

      Physical descrip: 4 v. in 5 ; 22 cm.

              Contents: Book I. The book of worship.--Book II. The book of

                        worldly usages.--Book III. The book of destructive

                        evils.--Book IV, pt. 1-2. The book of constructive


               Subject: Islamic ethics--Early works to 1800.

               Subject: Islam--Doctrines--Early works to 1800.

           Added title: The revival of religious learnings.



       Personal author: Ghazzali, 1058-1111.

                 Title: al-Ghazali on divine predicates and their properties;

                        a critical and annotated translation of these chapters

                        in al-Iqtisad fil-itiqad, by 'Abdu-r-Rahman Abu


               Edition: [1st ed.]

      Publication info: Lahore, Sh. Muhammad Ashraf [1970]

      Physical descrip: xxxii, 115 p. 23 cm.

               Subject: God (Islam)--Attributes.

          Added author: Abu Zayd, Abdu-r-Rahman.



       Personal author: Ghazzali, 1058-1111.

         Uniform title: [Ihya ulum al-din. Book 33. English]

                 Title: al-Ghazali's Book of fear and hope, by William McKane.

      Publication info: Leiden, E. J. Brill, 1962.

      Physical descrip: xix, 104 p. 25 cm.

               Subject: Fear.

               Subject: Hope.

          Added author: McKane, William,

           Added title: Book of fear and hope.



       Personal author: Ghazzali, 1058-1111.

         Uniform title: [Ihya ulum al-din. English]

                 Title: Imam Gazzali's Ihya ulum-id-din / [English version by]


      Publication info: Lahore : Sind Sagar Academy, [1978-

      Physical descrip: v. ; 22 cm.

   Incomplete contents: Book 1. The book of worship.--Book 2. The book of

                        worldly usages.--Book 3. The book of destructive


               Subject: Religious life--Islam--Early works to 1800.

               Subject: Islam--Doctrines--Early works to 1800.

               Subject: Sufism--Early works to 1800.

          Added author: Karim, Fazlul.

           Added title: Ihya ulum-id-din.



       Personal author: Ghazzali, 1058-1111.

         Uniform title: [Tahafut al-falasifah. English]

                 Title: The incoherence of the philosophers = Tahafut

                        al-falasifah: a parallel English-Arabic text /

                                  ITEM REPORT                                  


                Produced Tuesday, December 4, 2001 at 10:23 AM                


                        translated, introduced, and annotated by Michael E.


               Edition: 1st ed.

      Publication info: Provo, Utah : Brigham Young University Press, 1997.

      Physical descrip: xxxi, 260 p. ; 24 cm.

                Series: Islamic translation series

               Subject: Philosophy--Early works to 1800.

               Subject: Methodology--Early works to 1800.

               Subject: Faith and reason--Islam--Early works to 1800.

               Subject: Islam--Doctrines.

          Added author: Marmura, Michael E., 1929-



       Personal author: Ghazzali, 1058-1111.

         Uniform title: [Ihya ulum al-din. English. Selections]

                 Title: Inner dimensions of Islamic worship / al-Ghazali ;

                        translated from the Ihya by Muhtar Holland.

      Publication info: Leicester : Islamic Foundation ; Chicago, IL : Sound

                        Vision, c1983.

      Physical descrip: 142 p. ; 22 cm.

               Subject: Worship (Islam)--Early works to 1800.

          Added author: Holland, Muhtar, 1935-



       Personal author: Ghazzali, 1058-1111.

         Uniform title: [Jawahir al-Quran. English]

                 Title: The jewels of the Quran : al-Ghazali's theory : a

                        translation, with an introduction and annotation, of

                        al-Ghazali's Kitab jawahir al-Quran / by

                        Muhammad Abul Quasem.

      Publication info: [Bangi, Malaysia] : Quasem, [c1977]

      Physical descrip: 244 p. ; 23 cm.

               Subject: Koran--Criticism, interpretation, etc.

          Added author: Muhammad Abul Quasem.



       Personal author: Ghazzali, 1058-1111.

         Uniform title: [Gistas al-mustagim. English]

                 Title: The just balance : al-qistas al-mustaqim / Al-Ghazali

                        ; a translation with introduction and notes by D.P.


               Edition: 1st ed.

      Publication info: Kashmiri Bazar, Lahore : Sh. Muhammad Ashraf, c1978.

      Physical descrip: xxiii, 142 p. : 1 folded map ; 22 cm.

               Subject: Philosophy, Islamic.

               Subject: Islam--Doctrines.

          Added author: Brewster, David Pearson, 1930-



       Personal author: Ghazzali, 1058-1111.

         Uniform title: [Ihya ulum al-din. Book 12. English]

                                  ITEM REPORT                                 


                Produced Tuesday, December 4, 2001 at 10:23 AM                


                 Title: Marriage and sexuality in Islam : a translation of

                        al-Ghazali's book on the etiquette of marriage from

                        the Ihya / Madelain Farah.

      Publication info: Salt Lake City : University of Utah Press, 1984.

      Physical descrip: xii, 185 p. : ill. ; 24 cm.

               Subject: Marriage--Religious aspects--Islam--Early works to


          Added author: Farah, Madelain.


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